Stateless Environmentalism

The Criticism of State by Eco-Anarchist Perspectives

  • Francisco J. Toro Departamento de Geografía Humana, Universidad de Granada
Keywords: Eco-anarchism, environmental state, environmentalism, bioregionalism, social ecology, anarcho-primitivism


The State and its governmental institutions have been dignified in the environmentalist mainstream as palliative forces to face and solve the excesses and failures of capitalism and neoliberalism towards a proper environmental management. But this environmental state falls into evident contradictions regards to its formal commitment with environmentalist purposes. In addition, governmental institutions contribute to expand a nihilist attitude in the environmentalist actions of the citizenship. Within the environmentalist strands of anarchism, the matter of State has focused a relevant attention and position. An early green criticism may be found in the nineteenth century anarchists, in which State has no room as a violent and centralized force, and corrupting the goodness of the material, reproductive and spiritual connection of humans with Nature. Most recent eco-anarchist approaches, such as social ecologists, bioregionalists and anarcho-primitivists have analysed how determinant is State as a responsible agent in the global environmental crisis and proposed alternatives to this coercive power. This paper is aiming a) to examine some of the main contributions of the “green” criticism to State from eco-anarchists; and b) to build a consistent and wide critique of the State, helping to promote a non-statist balanced and fair relationship between societies and Nature.


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How to Cite
Toro, F. (2021). Stateless Environmentalism. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 20(2), 189-205. Retrieved from
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