Situating Psychedelics and the War on Drugs Within the Decolonization of Consciousness
This article provides a rationale for understanding the United States’ war on drugs as a biopolitical enterprise that restricts the states of consciousness humans can avail themselves to. Given the intimate relationship between psychoactive drugs and human cognition, perception, and behavior, the tactics of illegalization, persecution, and misinformation mobilized by the war on drugs have inherently delimited the conscious states available to the population. Drug regulations and prohibitions in contemporary US society have resulted in a biopolitical normalization of consciousness that reinvokes colonial refrains of domination historically mobilized against traditional ritual, healing, and spiritual practices and pharmacopeias. From a decolonial perspective, the biopolitical delimitation of consciousness ensuing from the war on drugs can be understood as a form of epistemic hegemony insofar as the alternate states brought about by certain drugs, in this case psychedelic substances, are delegitimized despite an array of evidence attesting to their epistemological, therapeutic, and philosophical import. By examining contemporary research on classic psychedelics, this article illustrates how psychedelics temporarily suppress the top-down structures which maintain normal waking consciousness, including the perceptual and conceptual boundaries that influence behavior. As such, this article examines how classic psychedelic drugs and experiences can be understood as anarchic agents that can assist in decolonizing the spaces of consciousness wherein unyielding colonial patterns of thought have become concretized.
Ahmad, Diana L. 2007. The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth-Century American West. Reno & Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press.
Alcoff, Linda Martín. 2007. “Mignolo's Epistemology of Coloniality.” CR: The New Centennial Review 7 (3): 79-101.
Alexander, Michelle. 2020. The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The New Press.
Anderson, Ben. 2011. “Population and Affective Perception: Biopolitics and Anticipatory Action in US Counterinsurgency Doctrine.” Antipode 43 (2): 205–236.
Baum, Dan. 2016. “Legalize it all.” Harper’s Magazine 24: 21-32.
Benavie, Arthur. 2012. Drugs: America's holy war. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bird, Michael Yellow. 2005. Beginning Decolonization. In: For Indigenous Eyes Only: A Decolonization Handbook, edited by Denzin, Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln and Linda Tuhiwai Smith. Handbook of critical indigenous methodologies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Blätter, Andrea. 1994. “Die Funktionen des Drogengebrauchs und ihre kulturspezifische Nutzung.” Curare 18 (2): 279-290.
Bogenschutz, Michael. P. 2017. “It’s Time to Take Psilocybin Seriously as a Possible Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 43 (1): 4–6.
Bouso, José Carlos, Rafael G. dos Santos, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles and Jaime E.C. Hallak. 2018. “Serotonergic Psychedelics and Personality: A Systematic Review of Contemporary Research.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 87: 118–132.
Caquet, Pierre E. 2021. “France, Germany, and the Origins of Drug Prohibition.” The International History Review 43 (2): 207-225.
Carhart-Harris, Robin. L. 2018. “The Entropic Brain - Revisited.” Neuropharmacology 142: 167–178.
Carhart-Harris, R. L. and K. J. Friston. 2019. “REBUS and the Anarchic Brain: Toward a Unified Model of the Brain Action of Psychedelics.” Pharmacological Reviews 71 (3): 316–344.
Carhart-Harris, R. L., D. Erritzoe, E. Haijen, M. Kaelen and R. Watts. 2018. “Psychedelics and Connectedness.” Psychopharmacology 235 (2): 547–50.
Carhart-Harris, Robin L., Robert Leech, Peter J. Hellyer, Murray Shanahan, Amanda Feilding, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Dante R. Chialvo and David Nutt. 2014. “The Entropic Brain: A Theory of Conscious States Informed by Neuroimaging Research with Psychedelic Drugs.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (20): 1–22.
Carhart-Harris, Robin L., David Erritzoe, Tim Williams, James M. Stone, Laurence J. Reed, Alessandro Colasanti, Robin J. Tyacke, Robert Leech, Andrea L. Malizia, Kevin Murphy, Peter Hobden, John Evans, Amanda Feilding, Richard G. Wise and David J. Nutt. 2012. “Neural Correlates of the Psychedelic State as Determined by FMRI Studies with Psilocybin.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (6): 2138-2143.
Coleman, Mathew and Kevin Grove. 2009. “Biopolitics, biopower, and the return of sovereignty.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 27 (3): 489-507.
Corntassel, Jeff, ed. 2018. Everyday Acts of Resurgence: People, Places, Practices. Olympia, Daykeeper Press.
Davis, Alan K., Frederick S. Barrett, Darrick G. May, Mary P. Cosimano, Nathan D Sepeda, Matthew W. Johnson, Patrick H Finan, and Roland R Griffiths. 2020. “Effects of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy on Major Depressive Disorder A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Jama Psychiatry, 1–9.
Debord, Guy. 1994. The society of the spectacle. New York: Zone Books.
De Rios, Marlene Dobkin and David E. Smith. 1977. “Drug use and abuse in cross cultural perspective.” Human Organization 36 (1): 14-21.
De Sutter, Laurent. 2018. Narcocapitalism: Life in the Age of Anaesthesia. Cambridge: Polity Press.
DEA / Drug Scheduling. 2020. Accessed November 24, 2020. https://www.dea.gov/drug-scheduling
Duke, Steven. B. 1995. “Drug Prohibition: An Unnatural Disaster.” Faculty Scholarship Series Yale: Paper 812.
Dyck, Erika. 2006. Hitting highs at rock bottom: LSD treatment for alcoholism, 1950-1970. Social History of Medicine 19 (2): 313–329.
Edwards, Roger. 2016. Oxford Psychology: Units 3,4: Workbook 3rd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Escobar, Arturo. 2018. Designs for the Pluriverse: Radical Interdependence, Autonomy, and the Making of Worlds. Durham: Duke University Press.
Escobar, Arturo. 2008. Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes. Durham: Duke University Press.
Falcon, Joshua 2020. “Designing Consciousness: Psychedelics as Ontological Design Tools for Decolonizing Consciousness.” Design and Culture 0 (0): 1-21.
Feola, Giuseppe. 2019. Degrowth and the Unmaking of Capitalism: Beyond Decolonization of the Imaginary. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 18 (4): 944- 997.
Fisher, Mark. 2009. Capitalist realism: Is there no alternative? John Hunt Publishing.
Forstmann, Matthias and Christina Sagioglou. 2017. Lifetime experience with (classic) psychedelics predicts pro-environmental behavior through an increase in nature-relatedness. Journal of Psychopharmacology 31 (8): 975-988.
Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the College de France, 1977-1978, edited by Michael Senellart, Francois Ewald and Alessandro Fontana, English Series Editor, Arnold I. Davidson, translated by Graham Burchell, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Foucault, Michel. 2003. Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the College de France, 1975-1976, edited by Mauro Bertani and Alessandro Fontana, General Editors: Francois Ewald and Alessandro Fontana, English Series Editor, Arnold I. Davidson, Translated by David Macey, New York: Picador.
Foucault, Michel. 1988. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality. Translated by Robert Hurley, New York: Pantheon Books.
Gallo, Silvio. 2017. The care of the self and biopolitics: Resistance and practices of freedom. Educational Philosophy and Theory 49 (7): 691-701.
Gramsci, Antonio. 2007. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Durham: Duke University Press.
Gregory, Derek. 2004. The Colonial Present. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Griffiths, Roland R. Matthew W. Johnson, William A. Richards, Brian D. Richards, Una McCann and Robert Jesse. 2011. “Psilocybin Occasioned Mystical-Type Experiences: Immediate and Persisting Dose-Related Effects.” Psychopharmacology 218 (4): 649-665.
Griffiths, R. R., W. A. Richards, M. W. Johnson, U. D. McCann and R. Jesse. 2008. “Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 22 (6): 621–632.
Griffiths, R. R., W. A. Richards, U. McCann and R. Jesse. 2006. “Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-Type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance.” Psychopharmacology 187 (3): 268–283.
Grove, Kevin. 2014. “Agency, affect, and the immunological politics of disaster resilience.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 32 (2): 240-256.
Grove, Kevin and Jonathan Pugh. 2015. Assemblage Thinking and Participatory Development: Diagram, Ethics, Biopolitics. Geography Compass 9 (1): 1-13.
Guattari, Félix. 2000. The Three Ecologies. Translated by Ian Pinder and Paul Sutton. London: Athlone.
Guerra-Doce, Elisa. 2015. “Psychoactive Substances in Prehistoric Times: Examining the Archaeological Evidence.” Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness, and Culture 8 (1): 91-112.
Guthman, Julie. 2009. “Teaching the Politics of Obesity: Insights into Neoliberal Embodiment and Contemporary Biopolitics.” Antipode 41 (5): 1110–1133.
Hart, Carl. 2013. “Beyond the Drug War: A Time to Break Silence.” In High Price: A Neuroscientist’s Journey of Self-Discovery That Challenges Everything You Know About Drugs and Society. New York: HarperCollins.
Hartogsohn, Ido. 2017. “Constructing drug effects: A history of set and setting.” Drug Science, Policy and Law3 (0): 1-17.
Harvey, David. 1990. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
Iversen, Leslie. L. 2016. Drugs: A very short introduction (Volume 52). London: Oxford University Press.
James, William. 2004. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Barnes and Noble.
Johnson, Matthew W., Albert Garcia-Romeu and Roland R. Griffiths. 2017. Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 43 (1): 55-60.
Johnson, Matthew W., Peter S. Hendricks, Frederick S. Barrett and Roland R. Griffiths. 2019. “Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function.” Pharmacology and Therapeutics 197: 83–102.
Kettner, Hannes, Sam Gandy, Eline C. H. M. Haijen and Robin L. Carthart-Harris. 2019. From Egoism to Ecoism: Psychedelics Increase Nature Relatedness in a State-Mediated and Context-Dependent Manner.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16 (5147): 1-24.
Kuypers, K. P. C. 2019. “Psychedelic medicine: The biology underlying the persisting psychedelic effects.” Medical Hypotheses 125: 21–24.
Kuzmarov, J. 2018. “The U.S. War on Drugs: From Its Origins to The Age of Trump.” Historians for Peace & Democracy, Broadsides for The Trump Era, Issue: 2, March 14, 2018.
Latouche, Serge. 2015. “Imaginary, decolonization of." In Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era. Edited by Giacomo D'Alisa, Federico Demaria, Giorgos Kallis, 117-120, Abingdon: Routledge.
Lattin, Don. 2017. Changing Our Minds: Psychedelic Sacraments and the New Psychotherapy. Santa Fe & London: Synergetic Press.
Laughlin, Charles D. 2013 “Consciousness and the Commons: A Cultural Neurophenomenology of Mind States, Landscapes, and Common Property.” Time and Mind 6 (3): 287–312.
Lemke, Thomas. 2011. Biopolitics: An Advanced Introduction. Translated by Eric Frederick Trump. New York: New York University Press.
Levinas, Emmanuel. 1969. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. Translated by Alphonso Lingis. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
Lovering, Rob. 2015. A Moral Defense of Recreational Drug Use. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Luna, Luis Eduardo 1984. “The Concept of Plants as Teachers among Four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Peru.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11 (2): 135–56.
Luna, Luis Eduardo. 2016. “Some Observations on the Phenomenology of the Ayahuasca Experience” In: Ayahuasca Reader: Encounters with the Amazon’s Sacred Vine, 251-279, Santa Fe & London: Synergetic Press.
Lyons, Taylor and Robin L. Carhart-Harris. 2018. “Increased Nature Relatedness and Decreased Authoritarian Political Views After Psilocybin for Treatment-resistant Depression.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 32 (7): 811-819.
MacLean, Katherine. A., Jeannie-Marie S. Leoutsakos, Matthew W. Johnson and Roland R. Griffiths. 2012. “Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51 (4): 721–737.
MacLean, Katherine A, Matthew W. Johnson and Roland R. Griffiths. 2011. “Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 25 (11): 1453-1461.
Maldonado-Torres, Nelson. 2007. “On the coloniality of being: contributions to the development of a concept.” Cultural Studies 21 (2-3): 240-270.
Malins, Peta. 2004. “Machinic assemblages: Deleuze, Guattari and an ethico-aesthetics of drug use.” Janus head 7 (1): 84-104.
Mangini, Mariavittoria. 1998. Treatment of alcoholism using psychedelic drugs: A review of the program of research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30 (4): 381–418.
Mason, Natasha L., Elisabeth Mischler, Malin V. Uthaug and Kim P.C. Kuypers. 2019 “Sub-Acute Effects of Psilocybin on Empathy, Creative Thinking, and Subjective Well-Being.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs51 (2): 123-134.
Mignolo, Walter. 2018. “Foreword: On pluriversality and multipolarity.” In Constructing the pluriverse: The geopolitics of knowledge, edited by Bernd Reiter, ix-vv. Durham: Duke University Press.
Mignolo, Walter. 2012. Local Histories/Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mignolo, Walter. 2009. “Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and De-Colonial Freedom.” Theory, Culture & Society 26 (7-8): 1-23.
Mignolo, Walter. D. 2005. The Idea of Latin America. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mignolo, Walter. 2002. “The Geopolitics of Knowledge and the Colonial Difference.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 101 (1): 57-96.
Mignolo, Walter D. and Catherine E. Walsh. 2018. “On Decoloniality: Concepts, Analytics, Praxis.” Durham, Duke University Press.
Mignolo, Walter D. and Madina V. Tlostanova. 2006. “Theorizing from the Borders: Shifting to Geo- and Body-Politics of Knowledge.” European Journal of Social Theory 9 (2): 205-221.
Miller, Richard Louis. 2017. Psychedelic medicine: the healing powers of LSD, MDMA, psilocybin, and ayahuasca. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Mintz, Sidney Wilfred. 1986. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin Books.
McCorvy, John D., Reid H.J. Olsen, and Bryan L. Roth. 2016. “Psilocybin for Depression and Anxiety Associated with Life-Threatening Illnesses.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 30 (12): 1209–1210.
McKenna, Terence. 1992. Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge. New York: Bantam Books.
McKenna, Dennis, Sir Ghillean Prance, Benjamin De Loenen, and Wade Davis (eds). 2017. Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs, Santa Fe & London: Synegetic Press.
Monteith, Andrew. 2018. “Threatening the Very Foundations of Civilization”: Religion and the American Drug War, 1875-1937. Bloomington: Indiana University.
Moraña, Mabel, Enrique D. Dussel and Carlos A. Jáuregui, eds. 2008. Coloniality at large: Latin America and the postcolonial debate. Durham: Duke University Press.
Nadelmann, Ethan A. 2014. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 5 (8): 783-808.
Nadelmann, Ethan A. 1991. “America’s Drug Problem: Alternative Perspectives, Alternative Futures.” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 45 (3): 24-40.
Nadelmann, E., Mark A. R. Kleiman and Felton J. Earls. 1990. “Should Some Illegal Drugs be Legalized?” Issues in Science and Technology 6 (4): 43-49.
Nielsen, Cynthia R. 2014. “Unearthing consonances in Foucault’s account of Greco-Roman self-writing and Christian technologies of the self.” Heythrop Journal - Quarterly Review of Philosophy and Theology 55 (2): 188–202.
Noorani, Tehseen, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Thomas C. Swift, Roland R. Griffiths, and Matthew W. Johnson. 2018. “Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: Qualitative analysis of participant accounts.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 32 (7): 756-769.
Oslender, Ulrich. 2019. “Geographies of the Pluriverse: Decolonial Thinking and Ontological Conflict on Colombia’s Pacific Coast.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 109 (6): 1691–1705.
Osto, Douglas E. 2016. Altered States; Buddhism and Psychedelic Spirituality in America. New York: Columbia University Press.
Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda, Dayanna Barreto, Heloisa Onias, Katia C. Andrade, Morgana M. Novaes, Jessica A. Pessoa, Sergio A. Mota-Rolim, Flávia L. Osório, Rafael Sanches, Rafael G. dos Santos, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Gabriela de Oliveira Silveira, Mauricio Yonamine, Jordi Riba, Francisco R. Santos, Antonio A. Silva-Junior, João C. Alchieri, Nicole L. Galvão-Coelho, Bruno Lobão-Soares, James E. C. Hallak, Emerson Arcoverde, João P. Maia-de-Oliveira and Dráulio B. Araújo. 2019. “Rapid Antidepressant Effects of the Psychedelic Ayahuasca in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Psychological Medicine 49 (4): 655-663.
Passie, Torsten and Udo Benzenhöfer. 2018. “MDA, MDMA, and Other ‘Mescaline-like’ Substances in the US Military’s Search for a Truth Drug (1940s to 1960s).” Drug Testing and Analysis 1 (72): 1-9.
Pokorny, Thomas, Katrin H. Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek and Franz X. Vollenweider. 2017. “Effect of Psilocybin on Empathy and Moral Decision-Making.” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 20 (9): 747–757.
Pollan, Michael. 2018. How to Change your Mind: What the new Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence. New York: Penguin Press.
Price, David. H. 2007. “Buying a Piece of Anthropology Part 1: Human Ecology and Unwitting Anthropological Research for the CIA.” Anthropology Today 23 (3): 8–13.
Quijano, Aníbal. 2000. “Coloniality of power and Eurocentrism in Latin America.” International Sociology 15 (2): 215-232.
Rätsch, Christian. 2005. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester: Park Street Press.
Reclus, Elisée. 2013. Anarchy, geography, modernity: selected writings of Elisée Reclus. John P. Clark and Camille Martin (eds). Oakland: PM Press.
Redford, Audrey and Benjamin Powell. 2016. “Dynamics of Intervention in the War on Drugs: The Buildup to the Harrison Act of 1914.” Independent Review 20 (4): 509-530.
Richards, William. A. 2008. “The Phenomenology and Potential Religious Import of States of Consciousness Facilitated by Psilocybin.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 30 (1): 189–199.
Roberts, Thomas B. 2019. MindApps: Multistate Theory and Tools for Mind Design. Rochester: Park Street Press.
Roberts, Thomas B. 2013. The Psychedelic Future of the Mind: How Entheogens Are Enhancing Cognition, Boosting Intelligence, and Raising Values. Rochester: Park Street Press.
Routledge, Paul. 2017. Space invaders: Radical geographies of protest. London: Pluto Press.
Samorini, Giorgio. 2019. “The oldest archaeological data evidencing the relationship of Homo sapiens with psychoactive plants: A worldwide overview.” Journal of Psychedelic Studies 3(Special Issue): 63-80.
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. 2018. The End of the Cognitive Empire: The Coming of Age of Epistemologies of the South. Durham: Duke University Press.
Schultes, Richard Evans, Albert Hofmann and Christian Rätsch. 1998. Plants Of The Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers. Rochester: Healing Arts.
Schulz, Karsten A. 2017. “Decolonizing political ecology: ontology, technology, and ‘critical’ enchantment.”Journal of Political Ecology 24 (1): 125-143.
Shulgin, Alexander and Ann 1997. PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley: Transform Press.
Singer, Merrill. 2008. Drugging the Poor: Legal and Illegal Drugs and Social Inequality. Long Grove: Waveland Press, Inc.
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 2012. Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London and New York: Zed Books Ltd.
Smith, Neil. 2008. “The Production of Nature. In Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space, 49-91. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.
Smith, Huston, Charles Grob, Robert Jesse, Gary Bravo, Alise Agar, and Roger Walsh. 2004. “Do drugs have religious import? A 40-year retrospective.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 44 (2): 120-140.
Springer, Simon. 2012. “Anarchism! What geography still ought to be.” Antipode 44 (5): 1605-1624.
Springer, Simon, Anthony Ince, Jenny Pickerill, Gavin Brown and Adam J. Barker. 2012. “Reanimating anarchist geographies: A new burst of colour.” Antipode 44 (5): 1591-1604.
Sullivan, Roger J. and Edward H. Hagen. 2002. “Psychotropic substance-seeking: Evolutionary pathology or adaptation?” Addiction 97 (4): 389-400.
Sullivan, Roger J., Edward H. Hagen and Peter Hammerstein. 2008. “Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275 (1640): 1231-1241.
Swanson, Link. R. 2018. “Unifying theories of psychedelic drug effects.” Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (172): 1–23.
Szasz, Thomas. 2007. The Medicalization of Everyday Life. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Szasz, Thomas. 1996. Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Szasz, Thomas. 1974. Ceremonial Chemistry: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs, Addicts, and Pushers. Garden City: Anchor Press.
Tagliazucchi, Enzo, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Csaba Orban, Suresh D. Muthukumaraswamy, Kevin Murphy, Helmut Laufs, Robert Leech, John McGonigle, Nicolas Crossley, Edward Bullmore, Tim Williams, Mark Bolstridge, Amanda Feilding, David J. Nutt and Robin Carhart-Harris. 2016. “Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution.” Current Biology 26 (8): 1043–1050.
Tart, Charles. T. 1983. States of Consciousness. Lincoln: iUniverse.com, Inc.
Tlostanova, Madina V. and Walter D. Mignolo. 2012. Learning to unlearn: Decolonial reflections from Eurasia and the Americas. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press.
Torres, Constantino Manuel. 2019. “The use of psychoactive plants by ancient indigenous populations of the North Andes.” Journal of Psychedelic Studies 3 (2): 198-211.
Tuathail, Gearóid Ó. 1996. Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space. London: Taylor & Francis.
Tuck, Eve and K. Wayne Yang. 2012. “Decolonization is not a metaphor.” Decolonization: Indigeneity Education, & Society 1 (1): 1–40. Retrieved from http://decolonization.org/index.php/des/article/view/18630/15554
Tupper, Kenneth. W. 2002. “Entheogens and existential intelligence: The use of plant teachers as cognitive tools.” Canadian Journal of Education 27 (4): 499–516.
Winkelman, Michael. J. 2019. “Introduction: Evidence for entheogen use in prehistory and world religions.” Journal of Psychedelic Studies 3(Special Issue): 43-62.
Winkelman, Michael. J. 2017. “The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology.” Frontiers in Neuroscience 11 (539): 1-17.
Winkelman, Michael. J. 2002. “Shamanism as Neurotheology and Evolutionary Psychology.” American Behavioral Scientist 45 (12): 1875–1887.
Winkelman, Michael. J. 2001. “Psychointegrators: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Therapeutic Effects of Hallucinogens.” Complementary Health Practice Review 6 (3): 219-237.
Zavala, Miguel. 2013. “What do we mean by decolonizing research strategies? Lessons from decolonizing Indigenous research projects in New Zealand and Latin America.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 2 (1): 55–71.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors agree to publish their articles in ACME under the Creative Commons "Attribution/Non-Commercial/No Derivative Works" Canada licence. To read and review the agreement, click here. In line with fair attribution and proper permissions, note any copyrights of materials cited in your paper. Do not use materials that are not fair use without express written consent.