Opposing Peripheralization?

A Case Study of Rural Social Enterprises in Hungary

  • Melinda Mihály Institute for Geography, Leipzig University
Keywords: social and solidarity economy, peripheralization, rural social enterprises, ethnic studies, Hungary

Abstract

Since the collapse of state socialism in 1989 regional disparities have been growing considerably in Hungary. In particular, small settlements in structurally disadvantaged areas are affected by different dimensions of peripheralization processes, such as stigmatization (they are labelled as “lagged behind”, “backwards” or “underdeveloped” areas), selective migration, disconnection, dependence and social exclusion. In addition, social exclusion in Hungary has an ethnic dimension, as Roma people tend to concentrate in peripheralized areas. As a response to these processes, local initiatives, such as rural social enterprises or social and solidarity economy initiatives, have emerged, counting Roma people amongst their stakeholders.

Based on ethnographic methods the article examines the capacity of three rural social enterprises to counteract these peripheralization processes, particularly the dimensions of political dependence and social or ethnic exclusion. The analysis has two parts. On the one hand, this paper examines how the institutional basis (civilian-based, municipality-based or faith based social enterprise) influences the political autonomy of a social enterprise, its access to funding and consequently its room for maneuverability. On the other hand, this paper looks to which extent the so-called Gypsy-Hungarian differentiation (Kovai, 2018, Horváth, 2008, Horváth and Kovai, 2010) determines local realities in peripheralized villages and how rural social enterprises can empower Roma people and divert the differentiation between the conceptual “Gypsy” and the conceptual “Hungarian”. The findings suggest that only the civilian-based social enterprise reflects the racialized and gendered oppression of Roma and thus has the greatest potential concerning Roma empowerment. On the other hand, the civilian-based social enterprise faces the most severe structural and financial challenges due to the constraining institutional framework, which favors centralized organization structures.

References

Amin, Ash; Cameron, Angus; Hudson, Ray. 2002. Placing the social economy. London, New York: Routledge (Contemporary political economy series).
Bajmócy, Péter; Józsa, Klára; Pócsi, Gabriella. 2007. Szélsőséges aprófalvak. Aprófalvak a településlisták végein néhány társadalmi gazdasági mutató alapján. In, Csapó, Tamás; Kocsis, Zsolt (eds.), A kistelepülések helyzete és településföldrajza Magyarországon. [III. Településföldrajzi Konferencia]. Szombathely: Savaria Univ. Press, 24–37.
Beetz, Stephan. 2008. Peripherisierung als raumliche organisation sozialer Ungleichheit in Materialien der Interdisziplinären Arbeitsgruppe Zukunftsorientierte Nutzung ländlicher Räume Nr. 21, Berlin: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Bürk, Thomas. 2013. Voices from the margin. The stigmatization process as an effect of socio-spatial peripheralization in small-town Germany. In, Andrea Fischer-Tahir, Matthias Naumann (eds.), Peripheralization. The making of spatial dependencies and social injustice. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 168–186.
Cebotari, Sorin; Mihály, Melinda. 2019. Towards a progressive local development approach – Insights from local community initiatives in Hungary and Romania In, Lang, Thilo; Görmar, Franziska (eds.), Regional and Local Development in Times of Polarisation - Re-Thinking Spatial Policies in Europe, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. pp. 253-285. (New geographies of Europe) (ISBN 978-981-13-1189-5)
Coraggio, José; Eynaud, Philippe; Ferrarini, Adrianne; Filho, Genauto Carvalho de Franca; Gaiger, Luis Inácio; Hillenkamp, Isabelle et al. 2015. The theory of social enterprise and pluralism: solidarity-type social enterprise. In, Jean-Louis Laville, Dennis R. Young and Philippe Eynaud (eds.), Civil society, the third sector and social enterprise. Governance and democracy. London, New York, NY: Routledge (Routledge frontiers of political economy, 200), 234–249.
Dusek, Tamás; Lukács, Réka; Rácz, Irma. 2014. Development Differences among the Regions of Hungary. Procedia Economics and Finance 9, 264–277
Engebrigtsen, Ada I. 2007. Exploring Gypsyness: Power, Exchange and Interdependence in a Transylvanian Village. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Erdősi, Ferenc. 2009. Transport. In, Kocsis, Károly; Schweitzer, Ferenc (eds.) Hungary in Maps. Budapest: HAS Geographical Research Institute, 164-170
Ercse, Kriszta. 2018. Az állam által ösztönzött, egyházasszisztált szegregáció mechanizmusa. In, Fejes, József Balázs and Szűcs, Norbert (eds.), Én vétkem – Helyzetkép az oktatási szegregációról. Szeged: Motiváció Oktatási Egyesület, http://www.staff.u-szeged.hu/~fejesj/pdf/En_vetkem_online_hq.pdf#page=177, 177-200
Fischer-Tahir, Andrea; Naumann, Matthias. 2013. Introduction. Peripheralisation as the Social Production of Spatial Dependencies and Injustice. In, Andrea Fischer-Tahir, Matthias Naumann (eds.), Peripheralisation. The making of spatial dependencies and social injustice. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 9–26.
Friedmann, John. 1973. A theory of polarized development, In, John Friedmann (ed.), Urbanization, Planning, and National Development, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 41–67
G. Fekete, Éva. 2015. Csereháti diagnózisok - átfogó térségi helyzetbemutatás. In, Éva G. Fekete (ed.), Társadalmi innovációk a felzárkózás szolgálatában. Dél-Cserehát - Nyitás a jövőre. Miskolc, 5–51.
G. Fekete, Éva; Hubai, László; Kiss, Julianna and Mihály, Melinda. 2017. Social Enterprise in Hungary, ICSEM Working Papers, No. 47, Liege: The International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) Project. Available online at https://www.iap-socent.be/sites/default/files/Hungary%20-%20Fekete%20et%20al.pdf
Gunson, Darryl. 2009. Solidarity and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 34 (3), 241–260. DOI: 10.1093/jmp/jhp022.
Hancock, Ian. 2015. Keynote Address: Roma - Explaining Today through History. In, Jan Selling, Markus End, Hristo Kyuchukov, Pia Laskar, Bill Templer, Khristo Ki︠u︡chukov, William Templer (eds.). Antiziganism. What's in a word? proceedings from the Uppsala International Conference on the Discrimination, Marginalisation and Persecution of Roma, 23-25 October 2013, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, XIX–XXX.
HCSO. 2014. Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal /Területi statisztikai adatok rendszere/2014/Közlekedés, hírközlés, www.teir.hu
HCSO. 2011. Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Census data, www.teir.hu
Horváth, Kata; Kovai, Cecília. 2010. A cigány különbségtétel alakulása egy észak-magyarországi faluban. In, AnBlokk (4), 39-41, Available online at http://epa.oszk.hu/02700/02725/00003/pdf/EPA02725_anblokk_2010_4_039-041.pdf
Kabai, Gergely; Keller, Judit; Németh, Nándor. 2012. A foglalkoztatás növelésének célja a kormányzati célok rendszerében. Kistérségi fejlesztések. In, Károly Fazekas, Ágota Scharle (eds.), Nyugdíj, segély, közmunka. A magyar foglalkoztatáspolitika két évtizede, 1990-2010. Budapest: Budapest Szakpolitikai Elemző Intézet és MTA KRTK Közgazdaság-tudományi Intézet, 47–62. Available online at http://econ.core.hu/file/download/20evfoglpol/kotet.pdf.
Kajner, Péter; Lányi, András; Takács-Sánta, András; Munkácsy, Béla; Bertényi, Gábor; Králl, Attila; et al. 2013. A fenntarthatóság felé való átmenet jó példái Magyarországon MIS-ÖKO Kft., Online: http://humanokologia.tatk.elte.hu/wp-content/uploads/a_fenntarthatosag_fele.pdf
Keller, Judit. 2011. Heterarchia és fejlődési pályaváltás. Új megközelítés a kistérségkutatásban. Tér és Társadalom, 25 (3): 4–26.
Kertesi, Gábor; Kézdi, Gábor. 2009. Általános iskolai szegregáció Magyarországon az ezredforduló után. Közgazdasági Szemle (16), 959–1000.
Kertesi, Gábor; Kézdi, Gábor. 2010. Roma employment in Hungary after the post-communist transition, Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market, No. BWP -2010/9, ISBN 978–615-5024–28-3, Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
Kesby, Mike. 2005. Retheorizing empowerment-through-participation as a performance in space: Beyond tyranny to transformation. Journal of Woman in Culture and Society 4., 2037–2065. http://doi.org/bsmvw9
Kinyik, Margit, and Vitál, Attila. 2005. Közfeladatok ellátása a nonprofit szektorban. Civil Szemle 2 (2): 90–106.
Kiss, Julianna and Mihály, Melinda. 2019. Social enterprises and their ecosystems in Europe. Updated country report: Hungary, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
Kóczé, Angéla. 2011. Gender, ethnicity and class: Romani women’s political activism and social struggles. Budapest: Central European University
Kóczé, Angéla. 2015. Political Empowerment or Political Incarceration of Romani? The Hungarian version of the Politics of Disposession. In Péter Krasztev, Jon van Til (eds.), The Hungarian Patient. Social Opposition to an Illiberal Democracy. Budapest, New York: Central European University Press, 91–110.
Kóczé, Angéla. 2016. Romani women and the paradoxes of neoliberalism: Race, gender and class in the era of late capitalism in East-Central Europe In, Eszter Kováts (ed.), Solidarity in struggle. Feminist perspectives
Koobak, Redi; Marling, Raili. 2014. The decolonial challenge. Framing post-socialist Central and Eastern Europe within transnational feminist studies. In, European Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (4), 330–343. DOI: 10.1177/1350506814542882.
Koós, Bálint. 2015. A szegénység és depriváció a magyar településállományban az ezredfordulót követően - avagy kísérlet a települési deprivációs index létrehozására. Tér és Társadalom 29(1), 53–68.
Kovách, Imre. 2012. A vidék az ezredfordulón. A jelenkori magyar vidéki társadalom szerkezeti és hatalmi változásai. Budapest: Argumentum; MTA Társadalomtudományi Kutatóközpont (Szociológiai Intézet).
Kovács, Katalin. 2010. Social and Administrative Crises Interlocking. The Misery of Rural Peripheries in Hungary. Eastern European Countryside 16, 89–113.
Kovács, Katalin. 2012. A cél a "kiegyenlítés". Falvakról, térbeli-társadalmi polarizációról, Enyedi Györgyre emlékezve. Területi Statisztika 15 (52)(6), 570–582.
Kovai, Cecília. 2018. A cigány-magyar különbségtétel és a rokonság, L Harmattan Könyvkiadó Kft., Budapest
Kövér, Ágnes. 2015. Captured by State and Church: Concerns about Civil Society in Democratic Hungary. Nonprofit Policy Forum, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 187-212, August.
Kühn, Manfred. 2015. Peripheralization. Theoretical Concepts Explaining Socio-Spatial Inequalities. European Planning Studies 23(2), 367–378. [doi:10.1080/09654313.2013.862518].
Kühn, Manfred; Weck, Sabine. 2013. Peripherisierung – ein Erklärungsansatz zur Entstehung von Peripherien. In, Matthias Bernt, Heike Liebmann (eds.), Peripherisierung, Stigmatisierung, Abhängigkeit? Deutsche Mittelstädte und ihr Umgang mit Peripherisierungsprozessen. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 24–46.
Lang, Thilo. 2015. Socio-economic and political responses to regional polarisation and socio-spatial peripheralisation in Central and Eastern Europe. A research agenda. HunGeoBull 64 (3), 171–185. DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.64.3.2.
Laville, Jean-Louis. 2014. The social and solidarity economy: A theoretical and plural framework. In, Jacques Defourny, Lars Hulgård und Victor A. Pestoff (eds.), Social Enterprise and the Third Sector. Changing European Landscapes in a Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge, 102–114.
Leibert, Tim. 2013. The Peripheralization of Rural Areas in Post-socialist Central Europe: A Case of Fragmenting Development? Lessons from Rural Hungary. In, Andrea Fischer-Tahir, Matthias Naumann (eds.), Peripheralization: The Making of Spatial Dependencies and Social Injustice. Wiesbaden: Springer, 101–120.
Leibert, Tim; Golinski, Sophie. 2016. Peripheralisation: The Missing Link in Dealing with Demographic Change? Comparative Population Studies 41 (3-4), 255-284 (Date of release: 03.03.2017)
Lennert, József; Kovács, András Donát; Farkas, Jenő Zsolt; Bódi, Ferenc. 2014. Lakóhelyi szegregáció a dél-alföldi Mezővárosokban. Esély 25 (6), 3–19
Mackenzie, Catriona. 2014a. The importance of relational autonomy and capabilities for an ethics of vulnerability. In Catriona Mackenzie, Wendy Rogers, Susan Dodds (eds.), Vulnerability. New essays in ethics and feminist philosophy New York: Oxford University Press (Studies in feminist philosophy), 33–59.
Mackenzie, Catriona. 2014b. Three Dimensions of Autonomy: A Relational Analysis. In Andrea Veltman, Mark Piper (eds.), Autonomy, oppression, and gender. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 15–41.
Mészáros, Zsuzsa. 2013. Közösségi gazdaságfejlesztés a gyakorlatban. [Community economic development in the praxis.] ACTA MEDSOC 4, 91–106.
Meyer, Frank; Miggelbrink, Judith. 2013. The Subject and the Periphery. About Discourses, Loopings and Ascriptions. In, Andrea Fischer-Tahir, Matthias Naumann (eds.), Peripheralization: The Making of Spatial Dependencies and Social Injustice. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 207–223.
MNE. 2015. Ministry of National Economy. Nemzetgazdasági Minisztérium /Regisztrált munkanélküliek adatai/2015, www.teir.hu
Nagy, Erika; Timár, Judit; Nagy, Gábor; Velkey, Gábor. 2015. The Everyday Practices of the Reproduction of Peripherality and Marginality in Hungary. In, Thilo Lang, Sebastian Henn, Wladimir Sgibnev, Kornelia Ehrlich (eds.), Understanding Geographies of Polarization and Peripheralization: Perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe and Beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 135–155.
Pike, Andy, Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés, Tomaney, John. 2007. What kind of local and regional development and for whom? Regional studies 41, 1253–1269.
Plüschke-Altof, Bianka. 2017. The question of responsibility: (De)peripheralising rural spaces in post-socialist Estonia. European Spatial Research and Policy 24 (2), 59–75.
Scheffel, David Z. 2005. Svinia in Black and White. Slovak Romas and their Neighbours. Broadview Press.
Sen, Amartya K. 1999. Development as freedom. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York
Stewart, Michael. 2001. Underclass, Race and ‘the Roma’ in Post-communist Eastern Europe. In, Chris Hann (ed.) Postsocialism: Ideas, Ideologies and Practices in Europe and Asia, Routledge, London.
Szalai, Júlia. 2002. A társadalmi kirekesztődés egyes kérdései az ezredforduló Magyarországán. (Alapkérdések). In, Szociológiai szemle 4, 208–209
Themelis, Sypros. 2016. The time of the Roma in times of crisis: Where has European neoliberal capitalism failed? Ethnicities. 16(3) 432–451.
Váradi, Mónika Mária; Virág, Tünde. 2015. A térbeli kirekesztés változó mintái vidéki terekben. Szociológiai szemle 25(1), 89–113.
Velkey, Gábor. 2017. Az állam és az önkormányzatok In, Zsuzsa Ferge (ed.), Magyar társadalom- és szociálpolitika (1990-2015). Budapest: Osiris Kiadó (A mai Magyarország), 125-160.
Wacquant, Loïc J. D. 2008. Urban outcasts. A comparative sociology of advanced marginality Cambridge: Polity. Warf, Barney. 1989. Locality Studies.
Interviews, field notes and locally produced documents
Anonymized source. 2011. A monography on Kispataks past, present and future, written by locals and local authorities.
Anonymized source. 2016. An overview of the complex development project in Tarnót.
Interview_H1_I1: Mayor of Kispatak, male, middle aged, key stakeholder of the SE, 23.03.2016, 145 min., transcribed.
Interview_H2_I4: alias Zsiga, leader of the Local Roma Municipality, male, middle aged, 06.05.2016, 60 min., transcribed.
Interview_H3_I1: minister of the Lutheran Congregation in Albertháza, official representative of the community apiculture, male, middle aged, key stakeholder of the SE, 23.03.2016 25 min., transcribed.
Interview_H3_I2: minister of the Lutheran Congregation in the neighbouring village of Albertháza, active in the community apiculture, key stakeholder of the SE, 23.03.2016, 120 min., transcribed.
Field_notes_H1: field visit for 3 days, 10–13.05.2016.
Field_notes_H2: field visit for 6 days, 2–7.05.2016.
Anikó: A Vlach Roma woman. The sister-in-law of Zsiga, a key employee of the Equality Foundation.
Zsiga: A Vlach Roma man, the president of the local Roma Minorities Self-Government. He is now a Public Work employee, but used to work abroad. He was also a colleague of the Equality Foundation for 6 months.
Marcsi: An elderly ethnic Hungarian woman, moved to Tarnót from Romania. Before working for the Foundation Marcsi used to run the local shop.
Rozi: A middle-aged, Romungro Roma woman. She is a regular employee of the Equality Foundation.
Field_notes_H3: field visit for 10 days, 8-12 and 14–15.08.2016, 04.09.2016, 5–6.08.2017.
Published
2019-05-24
How to Cite
Mihály, Melinda. 2019. “Opposing Peripheralization?”. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 18 (2), 551-75. https://acme-journal.org/index.php/acme/article/view/1559.
Section
Themed Section - Acting Peripheries